Connotation of data is comprehensive, it includes not only multi-media files such as data documents, images, voices that stored in file system or data base, but also hardware information, network addresses and network services, which are used to deposit and manage those information.

Data loss

Actually, there are various reasons that cause data loss; software, hardware, factitious, natural, intended,  unintended, all may cause data loss or damage on storage devices.

Generally, There are two main reasons for data problem:  software and hardware whose corresponding reasons are software reason and hardware reason.

1.Software reason
Virus, format, mis-partition, mis-clone, mis-operation, network deletion, power-cut during operation all may be the software reasons. The symptoms are usually mis-operation, read error, can not find or open file, report no partition, not formatted, password lost and troubled characters.

A: Computer Viruses: some malicious virus programs will destroy data, overwrite, or erase the data contents.

B: Mis-format: fast or completely format partition, thus changing the file system form (NTFS, FAT32) of partition.

C: Mis-Clone: when backing up the hard disk, mis-clone or overlay the original data on hard disk.

For these, we can use software tools to recover it. So called soft recovery means data can be recovered by software, not referring to hardware fixing operation for its fault is not because of  hardware failure.

The following are prompts that system can not start up normally:

Invalid Partition Table: Invalid partition table information.

Missing Operating System: “55AA” mark in DOS boot sector lost or DBR corrupted. Disk Boot Failure: System file read failure.

Bad or missing command interpreter: Can not find file or ‘COMMAND.COM’ file corrupted.

Invalid system disk: DOS boot record corrupted.

Type the name of the command, Interpreter: DOS partition mark in partition table error or ‘COMMAND.COM’ file lost, corrupted.

Error Loading Operating System: Main boot startup program read boot sector unsuccessfully.  Not found any active partition in HDD: Active partition mark in partition table changed as inactive partition mark.

2.Hardware reason
Sometimes data loss is because of hardware, such as bad sector in hard disk, power cut, head damage, circuit panel problem, etc.

When your hardware has some problems, you probably will find: the speed of hardware become slow, you cannot operate successfully; you cannot read data, etc, which are most often physical bad track failures.
Correspondingly, data recovery in hardware fix is considered as hard recovery, such as memory medium damage, track damage, hard disk scrape, head damage, electric machinery damage, chip burnout and so on..

The most distinct feature or difference between soft recovery and hard recovery is whether the memory medium itself can be normally accessed by fixing or replacing parts.

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