local area network (LAN) card or network interface card (NIC)
Note: These components are indicative of a computer network. Network cards, associated cables. Network cards can also be wireless.
primary uses: A LAN/NIC card is used to connect computers. Cards allow for the exchange of information and resource sharing.
potential evidence: The device itself, MAC (media access control) address.

Routers, hubs, and switches
These electronic devices are used in networked computer systems. Routers, switches, and hubs provide a means of connecting different computers or networks. They can frequently be recognised by the presence of multiple cable connections.
primary uses: Equipment used to distribute and facilitate the distribution of data through networks.
potential evidence: The devices themselves. Also, for routers, configuration files.

Servers
A server is a computer that provides some service for other computers connected to it via a network. Any computer, including a laptop, can be configured as a server. Generally, but not always, servers will have RAID drives and contain large amounts of storage.
primary uses: Provides shared resources such as email, file storage, web page services, data storage and print services for a network.
potential evidence: Please visit computer systems and potential evidence.

Network cables and connectors
Network cables can be different colours, thicknesses, and shapes and have different connectors, depending on the components they are connected to.
primary uses: Connects components of a computer network.
potential evidence: The devices themselves.

Pagers
A hand-held, portable electronic device that can contain volatile evidence (telephone numbers, voice mail, email). Mobile telephones and personal digital assistants also can be used as paging devices.
primary uses: For sending and receiving electronic messages, numeric (telephone numbers, etc.) and alphanumeric (text, often including email).
potential evidence:
* address information
* text messages
* email
* voice messages
* telephone numbers
Note: Since batteries have a limited life, data could be lost if they fail.

Printers
One of a variety of printing systems, including thermal, laser, inkjet, and impact, connected to the computer via a cable (serial, parallel, universal serial bus [USB]), firewire or accessed via an infrared port or wireless. Some printers contain a memory buffer, allowing them to receive and store multiple page documents while they are printing. Some models may also contain a hard drive or memory card. If they are printing, let them finish the print run.
primary uses: Print text, images, etc., from the computer to paper.
potential evidence: Printers may maintain usage logs, time and date information, and, if attached to a network, they may store network identity information. In addition, unique characteristics may allow for identification of a printer.
* documents
* hard drive/memory card
* ink cartridges
* network identity/information
* superimposed images on the roller
* time and date stamp
* user usage log

Removable storage devices and media
Media used to store electrical, magnetic, or digital information (e.g. floppy disks, CDs, DVDs, cartridges, tape, USB drive).
primary uses: Portable devices that can store computer programs, text, pictures, video, multimedia files etc. New types of storage devices and media come on the market frequently and it is important to be able to recognise these.
potential evidence: See computer systems and potential evidence.

Scanners
An optical device connected to a computer, which passes a document past a scanning device and sends it to the computer as a file.
primary  uses:  Converts  documents,  pictures  etc.  to  electronic  files,  which  can  then  be  viewed, manipulated, or transmitted on a computer.
potential evidence: The device itself may be evidence. Having the capability to scan may help prove illegal activity. In addition, imperfections such as marks on the glass may allow for unique identification of a scanner used to process documents.

Telephones
A handset either by itself (as with mobile telephones), or a remote base station (cordless), or connected directly to the landline system. Draws power from an internal battery, electrical plug-in, or directly from the telephone system.
primary  uses:  Two-way  communication  from  one  instrument  to  another,  using  land  lines,  radio transmission, cellular systems, or a combination. Phones are capable of storing information either on the phone itself, a SIM card, or a memory stick.
potential  evidence: Many  telephones  can  store  names,  phone  numbers,  and  caller  identification
information. Additionally, many mobile telephones can store appointment information, receive electronic
mail and Internet pages (similar to a PDA), and may act as a voice recorder, still or video camera.
* appointment calendars/information
* text messages
* password
* email
* caller identification information
* voice mail
* phone book
* memo/tasks
* electronic serial number
* internet usage

Note: Since batteries have a limited life, data could be lost if they fail.
Game consoles
A hand-held (PSP) or static (PS2 / Xbox) gaming system powered via battery or DC.
primary uses: To play games. Some have wireless, and slots for memory cards and Internet capability
potential evidence: See computer systems.
Miscellaneous electronic items
There are many additional types of electronic equipment that are too numerous to be listed that might be found at the scene of an incident. However, there are many non-traditional devices that can be an excellent source of investigative information and/or evidence. Examples are credit card skimmers, mobile phone cloners, caller ID boxes, dictation machines, Web TV or Sky boxes.

Fax machines, copiers, and multifunction machines may have internal storage devices and may contain
information of evidentiary value.

REMINDER: The search of this type of evidence may require a search warrant.